Natural History Museum

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Natural History Museum

 GEOLOGICAL SECTION OF THE MUSEUM

The geological collection of a museum has more than 200 samples of minerals and rocks. The ground and polished samples of minerals and rocks are presented in expositions according to geological classification.

Geological section of a museum

The collection of rocks reflects variety of metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary rocks.  Among magmatic rocks the particular interest is caused by obsidian versions (volcanic glass) - black, brown, striped silvery, also лабрадорит, listvinit.

From metamorphic rocks are presented liparits, serpentenits (snake), quartzites, marble and horns.  The particular interest is represented by coils – rocks with green coloring and spots of various colours which give them similarity to skin of a snake.  The coil is an ornamental stone.

Eight versions of a jasper are represented in a geological collection. Opaque, with a lobstarlike break it is painted by iron and manganese oxides in various colors and when polishing gives various drawings. Such types of a jasper are presented in expositions as landscape, technical, red, green, blue, brown, colourful and kopeychaty. The originality of drawing of a jasper allows to use it as an ornamental and decorative stone.

Rocks from which earth is put, consist of  chemical compounds called minerals. As a result of physical and chemical processes in depths and on a surface of Earth various minerals are formed. About three thousand minerals are known.

The collection of minerals is opened by a class of carbonates. Carbonates are presented by the most widespread elements of this class: ophiocalcite, aragonite (stalactite cut), malachite, azuro-malachite, calcite (crystal). The most interest represents a stalactite cut – mineral formed from a ceiling and the top part of walls of caves. The valuable ornamental stone is distinguished from carbonates malachite.

 The most widespread minerals are silicates.  70 versions of minerals of this class are represented in a collection, the most interesting samples of a collection are exhibited in the museum.  The special group to expositions presented by chalcedony versions - agate and cornelians (mokhovy, saginitovy, ruinny, landscape, sardonyx, a carnelian), chrysoprase, chalcedony (gray, pink, blue).  All versions of chalcedony are used as semiprecious ornamental stones, widely used in production of female jewelry.

To jeweler stones carry also group of pomegranates: rodingit (grossularit), gidrogrossular, andradid, spessartin.  Really jewels of a class of silicates is the group of quartz:  amethyst, rauhtopaz, rock crystal, morion, amethystine quartz.  Groups of quartz of a mineral are used in optical instrument making.  Also a jewel is opal.  From minerals of a class of silicates it is distinguished charoit – a mineral of violet color, it is a valuable ornamental stone.

Development of the Arkalyk bauxite field deposit.

In an exposition the special attention paid to minerals of the region,it is a development of bauxite fields which is carried out in a open way.

Bauxites in the subsequent processing produse "winged metal" aluminum which finds broad application in various branches. Also clays are extracted.

PALEONTOLOGIC SECTION OF THE MUSEUM

The paleontologic section of the museum acquaints with stages of formation of life on Earth.  Here in chronological sequence the died-out organisms, vegetation and fossil prints are presented.

 Fossils of the Palaeozoic Era

The Palaeozoic Era is considered an era of the beginning of life. This is the time of rapid development of the organic world of Earth. Water invertebrate animals who lived at the bottom of the seas, coastal shallows were one of the first living beings. Fossils of the Devonian Period which age makes more than 500 million years are visually presented in expositions.

 Brachiopods

Widely presented in the territory of Kazakhstan brachiopods and the sea lilies found in limy layers. Brachiopods and sea lilies lived at the bottom of the warm seas which stretched on territories of Kazakhstan earlier.

The Mesozoic Era is characterized by domination of large reptiles (dinosaurs), at this time there were numerous insects, birds, mammals, there is an updating of fauna, big blossoming reaches flora.

Fossils and prints of vegetation of the Mesozoic Era

Prints and fossils of fossil flora of the Mesozoic (ferns the remains of wood plants - lignites).

The Cenozoic Era – an era of domination of mammals, animals and plants of relatives like to modern.  In the Cenozoic Era there was the sharp climate change, being accompanied the continental freezing, captured the huge areas.

Especially brightly the fauna of ice age is presented in expositions. Profile reconstruction of a skeleton of a primitive bison which lived in the territory of Kazakhstan 24-9 thousand years ago is exhibited in an exposition. Its height in withers reached 2 meters, weight from 800 to 1200 kg, scope of horns made 60-90 cm and more. It was the large bull which has been well adapted for life in open landscapes. This profile reconstruction of a primitive bison is a single example found  in Kazakhstan.

 Profile reconstruction of a skeleton of a primitive bison

Bone relics of the animals who were once living in ice age are presented for expositions of a museum, representing a mamontovy faunistic complex. This is a mammoth, a woolly rhinoceros, a bison, a saiga, a red deer.

Bone relics of animals of ice age

 ZOOLOGICAL SECTION OF THE MUSEUM

A variety of fauna is presented in the zoological section of the  museum.  Landscape zones which are characteristic for area are presented:  steppe, reservoir, pine pine forest.

The fauna of the steppe is various, the fox, a badger are presented for expositions, korssak, a groundhog, and also birds – lun, a partridge, sang, pustelga, a shilokhvost, shirokonoska.

 Landscape of a steppe zone

From wild animals are most widespread a fox and korssaks. The fox prefers the open district, where in the winter snow cover not too deep and friable. Therefore in the territory of our country most of all foxes lives not in the woods, and in forest-steppes, steppes. The fox, though belongs to typical wilds, eats the most various food. Everywhere the basis of its food is made by small rodents, mainly voles.

Korsak belongs to typical inhabitants of semi-deserts and dry flat steppes. Here korsak hunts mainly on small animals not more largely than young hares and groundhogs, generally it is voles, pestrushka, gophers, jerboas, and in summer months eats also birds, reptiles, insects, but vegetable forages almost doesn't touch. At their shortcoming he eats drop and various garbage. As well as other predators, korsak hunger with firmness. It doesn't need water.

One of the smallest representatives of chicken birds is a quail.  Coloring sang obviously patronizing, and it is almost impossible to notice it on the ground.  It is generally herbivorous bird.  Eats seeds and leafs of plants, and in summertime in noticeable quantity eats insects and other invertebrate animals.  Selecting fruit drop and destroying harmful insects, quails benefit to agriculture.  Nearby we see small chicken of a dense constitution it is a gray partridge.  It is exclusively land bird.  Lives in the steppe with coppices and splittings of the woods, flood plains of the rivers, the grain fields alternating with bushes and the small young woods.

Birds of prey of the steppe are presented by steppe luns and pustelgy. Steppe lun the migratory bird occupying open districts in the steppe and the forest-steppe. The forage of this bird is made of  animals whom it picks up from the grass: small animals (field mice, etc.), baby birds and eggs of birds nesting on the earth, are more rare a lizard, large insects. The widespread and very useful bird – pustelga, occupies forest-steppes, parks, gardens, the cities, mountains and deserts, eats a various forage. Looking out for food,pustelga at small height often "shivers" in air on a place (from where one of national names of a bird at us "tryasulka".

In steppes and semi-deserts we meet the badger.  It is perfectly adapted for digging of deep holes in which it spends considerable part of the life.  The badger eats the most various food: small animals, frogs, lizards, birds, their eggs, insects and their larvae, mollusks, earthworms, berries, fruit, nuts, grass.  The skin of a badger has no great value though it is in own way beautiful.  Fat possesses curative properties, meat is quite eatable.  As the useful animal a badger deserves protection.

Baybak, or steppe groundhog eats the grassy plants which set exceeds to one hundred types. Groundhogs usually don't drink water. To a vegetable forage groundhogs add saranchovy, mollusks, caterpillars, ant dolls; usually eat them together with a grass, During the spring and summer on a highly nourishing forage the groundhog saves up to, 800 - 1200 g of fat.

 At the end of August — September groundhogs fall into deep hibernation which lasts 6 — 8 months. For this term they don't eat as fodder stocks in holes they don't collect. They waken early (at the end of February - March) when still snow everywhere lies. The groundhog has some enemies. Most of them — wolves and vagrant dogs. Fat of groundhogs is used in technology and traditional medicine. The fur of groundhogs always was in great demand in the world market.

From ducks in the steppe it is possible to meet a shilokhvost and shirokonoska. The Shilokhvost nests on the coasts of reservoirs, eats both vegetable, and animal sterns. In steppe and forest-steppe zones of our country there are numerous ducks . This duck eats mainly animal sterns. The basis of a food is made by small mollusks, planktonic crustaceans, water insects and their larvae. From vegetable forages eats green parts and seeds of different water plants. They gets, food filtering water by beaks.

Hawk teterevyatnik - a bird of prey, the weight of her 700 — 1500 g. Coloring of birds from the back party grayish-brown different shades — from gray-gray to purely - brown. The belly party whitish with cross brown drawing from strips. Teterevyatniki are generally fed with birds — from small to average and rather large (from the regulus to pigeons and pheasants), and also mammals, and in particular by squirrels, rabbits and hares.

The crane – a belladonna, the smallest representative of family, its height is 95 — 97 cm, weight is 2,5 — 3,5 kg.  Head, neck and breast are black, all other plumage gray-gray.  Special decoration of a bird — bunches of long rassuchenny white feathers over eyes which flutter in the form of sultans or braids.

Favourite places of nesting of a belladonna — dry cereal польшные steppes where the grassy cover doesn't form continuous dernoviny.  Belladonna isn't so whimsical and it is easily reconciled with continuous, but a low grassy cover and even with the zalezhny and thrown fields.

RESERVOIR

The fauna of reservoirs is rich and various. The varietyof feathery is presented in expositions occupying lakes and river channels – a bausond goose, ducks, the cormorant to blacken, a toadstool, a dive, a seagull, teals, a bittern, a lapwing, a marsh owl.

Fresh lakes are rich with nearby vegetation, algas, invertebrate animals and other living creatures, the various birds attracting here eating them. Such reservoirs are for them a place of nesting and removal of baby birds.

One of the smallest ducks is the teal, it makes weight only 200-450g. It can fly up both from water, and from a land almost vertically up that gives the chance to it to visit even the smallest reservoirs among reed thickets and to be fed in the flooded woods during a high water.

One of the largest birds is the cormorant and a bausond goose. They nest always about the reservoirs rich with fish. Cormorants can float, excellently dive, not so badly fly, but to soaring flight don't practise. On the earth cormorants keep almost vertically and go with some difficulty. Cormorants - the real ihtiofagi. Their forage - fish, in different places different. Bausond goose more land bird, than water, you  can see it on the grass, than on water to which he flies only on a watering place. On the grass it walks well and quickly runs. Flies up from water and sits down on water easily. Well floats, and at danger it dives.

Surprising bird on a reservoir is a big toadstool or chomga. (Ears) are especially characteristic for a big toadstool a chestnut and red collar on a neck and two bunches of feathers on the head. Important condition of dwelling is existence of silent open reaches where the bird could hunt for fish, and thickets of a cane adjoining them or a reed where it could hide a nest and take cover from danger. The toadstool together with down baby birds far departures from cane thickets on the middle of a reach and doesn't show concern at emergence of marsh luns or other predator. Only at obvious intention of the last to attack a brood it dives, being shown after a while on some tens meters aside. Together with it baby birds dive also, but isn't independent, previously having got on a back and having hidden in its plumage. Chickabiddies so densely get stuck in dense feathers, having put out only a beak tip that the bird quietly dives with a precious burden, without being afraid to lose it under water. Predators, probably, know elusiveness of broods of toadstools from experience and usually don't try to pursue them. There are experiences that toadstools can even fly with chickabiddies on a back.

In the same place it is possible to meet a duck of the average sizes to blacken hokhlaty and blue to blacken - a dive ruddy-headed. This blacken to flies quickly, but from water rises not easy, on the slanting line. Floats well, remarkably dives. Food gets mainly vertically diving on depth 3-4, and sometimes 10 m and more, remaining under water till 30-40 seconds. Quite silent bird. Hokhlaty  blacken is almost only animal feed duck. Sometimes the ruddy-headed dive does a semi-floating nest among a reed on rather deep place, strengthening it on rhizomes and reed stalks.

Near nyrkovy it is possible to meet and river ducks – kryakva, they are fed only on shoal, getting food only at a depth with the neck lowered in water. Thus they overturn headfirst, quite often immerse in water almost all body, leaving tail only sticking out up, but long in such situation can't remain and quickly jump out from water, as a stopper.

A silvery seagull well floats, plunging it is one of our large seagulls –only a little. In exceptional cases dives. On the ground moves easily, holding a trunk it is almost horizontal, if necessary quickly runs. Shouts differently: most often, showering the head, the bird makes a loud laughing loudly sound for which places it is called hokhotuny. Strong, courageous, aggressive seagull with pronounced habits of a predator.

In cane and reed dense thickets with small sites of water it is possible to meet a bittern. Bittern, watching for food, long time is motionless at mouth waters, and then with fast movement grabs food by a beak. In the afternoon this bird inactive, disappears in dense thickets; thus it stands usually on one foot, having stooped and having pulled in a neck. However in case of danger it extends vertically a neck and the head and remains in such situation motionless. In such pose it is difficult to notice a bittern as it reminds a bunch of dry stalks of a reed. With approach of twilight the bird appears at edges of open reaches, starts climbing on a cane, covering stalks with long fingers. It is hard to see a bittern in the nature. Shout of a bittern is peculiar, it may be compare to a roar of a bull. Therefore a bittern is sometimes called the water bull.

At fresh, salty and saltish lakes with open coast it is possible to meet a hodulochnik who lodges usually colonies, settling mainly on a dry place, on braids and shallows, but sometimes in shoal on a hummock or on a bunch of stalks of a cane so the nest is surrounded with water.

Loud bird on a reservoir is the herbalist, nesting on grassy bogs and wet meadows. On crude meadows, suburbs of grassy bogs nest lapwings - live, mobile, loud birds. They quickly and dexterously run among  grass, is frequent on rough kochkovaty soil, from time to time suddenly stop, look round, and then run further, having sometimes seized thus turned-up insect. In case of alarm the bird flies up and easily gives out the presence by annoyingly sounding, abstruse, often repeated shout "to CHI-VY... CHI-VY... ".

From birds of prey it is possible to meet a marsh owl who unlike the majority of other owls, builds own simple nest located on the ground. The marsh owl is generally fed with rodents, other forages - birds, insects - have minor value in her food. The marsh owl is  not strictly night bird, it is active also in the daytime.

A muskrat swims on a surface and under water, conducts a semi-water way of  life.  Muskrats are the largest of voles.  The mass of adult individuals can reach nearly 2 kg, though it usually weighs about 1,5 kg.  The tail almost reaches body length.  The muskrat is active in twilight and in the dark, and also active early in the morning.  Day spends in a shelter.  Constructs its hole on  coast with an underwater entrance.  On low boggy coast or islands constructs from stalks of water plants (a reed, a sedge, рогоза) hatka height to meter.  The muskrat eats water or nearby vegetation;  sometimes eats small invertebrates.  Muskrat - one of the major trade types giving a valuable skin in a large number.

From large natatorial in expositions are presented a pelican curly and a swan – shipun. The pelican is curly it surpasses a pink pelican in the size. Wingspan at it reaches 2 m, length covered - 77 cm. 13 kg weigh 9, 12 and even. The curly differs from a pink pelican lack of pink tones in plumage, existence on the head and the top party of a neck of the extended and twirled, "curly" feathers (from where and the name of a bird), forming a mane semblance.

Swan-shipun is slightly larger than klikun, his weight fluctuates from 8 to 13 kg. When swimming it often bends a neck in the form of a letter S, and a beak and the head holds obliquely to water. Neck of a shipun is thicker and therefore at distance it seems shorter, than of klikun. Back contour of shipun is angular. On the fly shipun doesn't make loud blares, and at waves of wings the characteristic scratch of big moss feathers is from a distance audible. At irritation makes a characteristic hissing sound on which received name. Close we will easily distinguish it by a big outgrowth (cone) on a forehead.

The spoonbill is the large bird having white plumage, black feet and a yellowish flat beak which is expanded on the end in the form of a rake. Spoonbills eat various water inhabitants, in particular small small fishes, insects and their larvae, mollusks, crustaceans. Quite often they eat frogs, sometimes lizards. The spoonbill is fed usually on not overgrown shoal and searches for food by touching. For this purpose it lowers its beak in water and, moving the head to the right and to the left, filters through a beak soil, selecting possible food. The described movements of a bird remind from a distance movements of the mower. The most part of spoonbills is fed in twilight and at night. The spoonbill - a quiet silent bird, and it is seldom possible to hear it.

 PINE FOREST

Really a unique place among the Kazakhstan steppe are sites of pine forest.

It is a habitat of a large number of birds and mammals. Here it is possible to meet a squirrel – a teleduck. So call large, mainly serokhvosty squirrels. Coloring of winter fur of teleducks very light, silver-gray, brushes on ears red or a black. Squirrels, as well as other types of this sort — typically wood animal. It perfectly climbs on branches and easily jumps from one tree on another. In case of need the squirrel can without harm for herself jump from top of a high tree on the earth. It builds a nest in hollows or branches of trees. The nest from branches has a sphere form with a lateral entrance.

In pine forest lodges the black grouse and a pheasant . The black grouse is quite harmonous and mobile. The black grouse spends the most part of life on the earth though in the winter it is almost fed on trees. On the earth moves quickly, thus usually extends a neck forward. Sitting on branches, the body holds horizontally. The black grouse quickly and quite easily flies, doing frequent waves by strongly curved wings. Flies up freely both from the earth, and from trees; take-off from the earth is accompanied by big noise while from a tree breaks almost quietly. From prosecution never runs but flies up and, as a rule, flies far.

Slightly more largely than a black grouse is a pheasant, it reminds chicken from whom differs by a long tail. The pheasant is very careful and timid; only among dense thickets he feels in comparative safety, though in a thicket he isn't abandoned by vigilance. Having caught sight of danger, the ordinary pheasant tries to run away. At run the head and a neck at an ordinary pheasant are inclined forward, and the tail is raised. Being the best runner among our chicken, the pheasant freely and quickly runs not only on open spaces, but also among a dense grass and in thickets of bushes. The ordinary pheasant spends out the most part of life on the earth. Flies badly and a little. Pheasant - one of the most beautiful and brightly painted birds. In unusually magnificent dress of males gold and dark green, orange and violet colors are surprisingly harmoniously combined.

From predators here it is possible to meet an ermine and a polecat. For the winter the ermine grows white and only the tip of a tail remains black. the ermine hunts not only on an earth surface, but also in courses of larger rodents and, having destroyed owners, often lodges in their nests. It perfectly swims and easy gets on trees and bushes. On snow he runs equal jumps, continually diving under heaps of brushwood and roots, and sometimes moves in the thickness of snow cover. The ermine is active at the most different o'clock of days, frequent in the afternoon. In hard frosts and snow-storms it can disappear long in a shelter under protection of a snow-covered windbreak, in holes of rodents, among roots and in other secluded places.

The polecat is close to a mink. Appearance of polecats generally typical for the small marten. They differ by long, but rare indumentum thanks to it through an awn it is well visible dense light wool. Also dark coloring of paws, tail (or its end), the peculiar coloring of a muzzle reminding a mask is characteristic. The food basis of a steppe polecat is made by gophers, hamsters, creepers.

The bright representative of birds of prey is the eagle owl. This is a night and twilight bird. The eagle owl eats hares (a hare and a white hare) - small myshevidny and insectivorous. Rodents make preferred food. Occasionally eagle owls attack young roes. Big place in its food is a bird — a wood-grouse, a black grouse. Occasionally eagle owls are fed also with frogs, and even fishes.

COLLECTION OF MOLLUSCS

In the center of the zoological section of the museum is the collection of sea mollusks, stars and corals is presented.

Collection of sea mollusks, stars and corals

The name starfishes occurs from a shape of a body of representatives of the erinaceouses who looks like a star united in this class, most often five-pointed, or a flat correct pentagon. Starfishes — typical inhabitants of oceans and the seas. All starfishes in an adult condition conduct a ground way of life, creeping on a surface of a bottom or being dug in in sand or silt. Many stars, especially from among living on shoal,are active predators feeding on various mollusks, crustaceans, coelenterates. The stars occupying depths of the ocean, are sometimes painted in reddish colors.

In a collection corals which are colonial animals draw our attention, they live practically in all seas forming coral reeves – the fairy underwater forests. At a depth from 600 to 700 meters they form underwater oases which are the house for a large number of sea inhabitants. In front of  gorgoniya corals which can grow to 3 meters.

The collection of  shells of mollusks represents their big variety in form and the sizes which fluctuate from several mm and can reach 1 meter and more. This collection is the initial stage assembled from more extensive collection. The majority of mollusks lives in the seas and conduct a ground way of life. Often shells of mollusks, for example, the bryukhonogy are twirled in a cone-shaped spiral, shells of ammonites simply spiraly are twirled. Often inside layer of shells of mollusks the nacreous. The men long since widely used shells of mollusks in an everyday life. Shells went on production of scrapers, buttons, amulets, the jewelry, in the ancient time some shells were used as money.

COLLECTION OF INSECTS

Insects – Insecta – represent the most numerous class from all fauna of our planet. Today it is described about 1 million species of insects that makes about 70% from all fauna. Insects are subdivided approximately into 30 groups. By quantity of types the group of coleoptera – bugs is in the lead. The collection of coleoptera is presented for  expositions of a museum numbering more than hundred species of bugs.

The representative of coleoptera the bug Goliath of Goliathus meleagris is bright. Males can reach during lifetime weight in 80-100 grams and are the heaviest bugs in the world. Coloring generally black, with white drawing on wing sheaths. Black sites have velvet structure. Males on the head have a Y-shaped shoot similar to horns. In the afternoon bugs actively fly and the most part of time spend in tress. On the earth go down extremely seldom. Eat following juice of trees and overripe fruit.

bug Goliath

The unicorn beetle of Chaleosoma atlas represented in a collection isn't less interesting. Largest of them live on Sumatra and Java and can reach to 12 cm. On breasts three outgrowths, the fourth is directed up on the head.

unicorn beetle

One of the largest bugs on Earth is considered the bug oat-flakes. Length of a body of a bug oat-flakes of Dynastes hercules reaches to 178 mm. Head and front back is brilliant, black color. Coloring of wing sheaths of a male depends on humidity surrounding environments and can vary. Wing sheaths of olive-brown, yellow, yellow and olive color, with black round spots, the size and which quantity not constantly and strongly varies. On the head of a male there is the big horn directed forward, with several teeth, directed forward and a little curved from top to bottom. The bottom party of a tip of a horn is covered dense red or is red - brown hairs. Habitat places are Central and South America, islands of the Caribbean Sea.

 bug oat-flakes

One of the largest bugs in the world represented in a collection the bug - an elephant of Megasoma elephas. Length of a body of males to 120 mm, females to 70 mm. Coloring black, the body is densely covered with yellowy-brown hairs. Males have outgrowths on the head and a on back in the form of horns. The weight of a bug is to 35 g. Conducts mainly a nightlife.

 bug elephant

The bug with a big mustache - the long-legged harlequin of Acrocinus longimanus - a large bug from family of bugs with a big mustache is really magnificent and graceful. Length of a body is up to 80 mm. Coloring gray, black, brick-red. Coloring variations from bright to the muffled tones are observed. On each side of head of  a bug there are sharp thorns. The top end of wing sheaths is covered with numerous dimples. Short moustaches are 1,5 times longer than a body. Forward feet of males are considerably longer than all body. With their help they hold a female during pairing. Active in a night-time. Disappear in shelters in the day-time.

 long-legged harlequin

It is considered one of known bugs with a big mustache Batocera wallacei. Length of a body of separate types to 100 mm. on the average 50 - 60 mm. The body generally in the indumentum, visible coloring of a bug most often depends on color and cover drawing. In most cases coloring more or less simple, often patronizing. However there are also views with very bright and motley coloring. Short moustaches are very various but to length, usually reach top of wing sheaths, sometimes - bodies are 2-3 times longer, and sometimes surpass body length even by 4-5 times at males.

 Bugs with a big mustache of Batocera wallacei

Bugs are represented in an entomological collection of a museum bugs - rhinoceroses of the sort Golofa. Widespread in the territory of the Central and South America. Bugs reach in length of 5 cm and are painted in brown color.

 

Golofa pizarro Golofa aeacus

 Lepidoptera group or cheshuyekryly

From all insects a butterfly use the greatest popularity. You can hardly meet a man who wouldn't admire them the same as admire beautiful flowers. Not without reason in ancient Rome believed that butterflies occurred from the flowers which have come off plants. Butterflies – the second for quantity of types group of insects after bugs. Today about 160 thousand species of butterflies are described.

The collection is presented to expositions of a museum numbering more than 200 species of tropical butterflies. You have a fine opportunity to get acquainted with the most beautiful and well-known butterflies of the world. They strike with the beauty and magnificence.

 The family gentlemen, or sailing vessels totals about 700 species of day butterflies. From family of sailing vessels in a collection are represented birdwings.

 Birdwing butterfly krez

 Birdwing butterfly krez – a bright golden-orange butterfly. At lateral lighting wings of this butterfly flash magic chartreuse light. It is hard to catch these butterflies as they live generally in the remote marshland of the Indonesian islands.

In New Guinea and in the northern regions of Australia the butterfly – birdwing Priam is widespread. Subspecies are represented in a collection different by coloring of wings: O.priamus miokensis and O. Priamus urvillianus. Males of the first look the most dark of the relatives – the green field of their forward wings is considerably narrowed, and greens of back wings are forced out by black coloring which extends from the wing basis. The second subspecies bring in the general scale deep, with a silk luster, violet-blue color. Coloring of wings is combined with a bright yellow paunch.

 

O.priamus miokensis                                                    O. Priamus urvillianus

The few butterfly above sea level lives in mountain rainforests of the Molluksky archipelago to the southeast coast of New Guinea at the height of 2300 meters live birdwing Goliath.

The male birdwing Goliath is surprisingly bright. His wide forward wings sparkle yellow and green on a black velvet. Back wings almost entirely gold, as if being shone from within. Butterflies make the strongest impression not only by festive coloring, but also by size.

  birdwing Goliath

Grace and effective coloring of birdwing  Brook leaves nobody indifferent. Extended, a prompt form forward wings much more the roundish back – testifies to fast, powerful flight of a butterfly.

 birdwing Brook

 The large shining - a blue sailing vessel Ulysses even in a collection makes indelible impression. This butterfly lives at the height up to 800 meters above sea level. This is very careful and extremely timid butterfly, to catch her is very difficult. Butterflies often go down to pools and coast of reservoirs, this moment is used by hunters of butterflies, attracting them with bright blue brilliant subjects.

 sailing vessel Ulysses

The sailing vessel Blum fascinates with a classical shape of wide wings with a flickering emerald dusting on a dark opaque background both being poured in azure and turquoise light a strip crossing forward and back wings. Blum's sailing vessel is found in Melanesia, on the island of Sulawesi. Difficultly to catch these butterflies as they are very careful and their flight is prompt.

sailing vessel Blum

Butterflies can be met in hard-to-reach spots of rainforests and represented in a collection of the cheshuyekryly. Scientific expeditions are rare and rather dangerous for entomologists.

The sailing vessel Zagrey meets at the height up to 1200 meters above sea level in the woods of Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia. Orange yellow spots on wings of a butterfly as splashes of the fountain give to her look conviviality.

 

sailing vessel Zagrey

 

The African sailing vessel Antimakh belongs to the largest butterflies of the world. Wingspan of a male reaches 250 mm. The shape of wings of a butterfly is similar to wings of a bird. Coloring of wings and pattern have various shades brown and red and yellow.

Sailing vessel Antimakh

 

The second-large African sailing vessel Zalmoksis reaches 150 mm in wingspan. Wings of a butterfly from sparking emerald to it is bluish the green. The pattern of forward wings is made by narrow black strips between black veins and a black dusting of top and a first line.

Females of zalmoksis in collections of entomologists are very big rarity: they do not often leave tops of huge trees.

 sailing vessel Zalmoksis

One of brilliant and being remembered butterflies is graphium Androcles. At first sight the butterfly strikes with magnificent white tails on back wings.

This tropical sailing vessel lives on the island of Sulawesi. The flight of butterflies is prompt, and it is impossible to catch up with it. When catching by a net her gentle tails are almost always injured.

 Graphium Androcles

 

Losariya Kuhn - this butterfly strikes with grace of the wings decorated with club-shaped tails. The extensive territory of distribution of this butterfly includes the peninsulas of Indochina, Malacca, and also Sumatra, Java and adjacent islands. They prefer the low glades slightly shined with the sun and growing cuttings down, time of their activity is the share of the second half of day.

Back wings of a butterfly strongly differ from front in a form and bright coloring.

 Losariya Kuhn

Sailing vessel Paris. This tropical sailing vessel occupies extensive areas of Southern and South East Asia where it isn't rare. The surprising beauty of paris is given by a large shining green or turquoise field on back wings which is evident at once even at a flying butterfly. Butterflies stick to sites of the rarefied wood and valleys at height to 1200м above sea level. Their flight prompt, rough, even nervous. They willingly visit blossoming bushes, especially a jasmine, however on flowers never sit down: hang over one, trembling wings, and at once fly on the next.

 sailing vessel Paris

Family of nimfalids is one of the most numerous among day butterflies it totals about 2000 species of insects of the most various colourings and the forms widespread almost on all planet.

Kallima - the butterfly of a tropical sort living in South East Asia and Africa, reached perfection in masking. Many sorts of kallimas  - desired object for the collector. The top party of their wings bright, shining pure, festive paints, and contours of a wing are unique.

Kallima

Wonderful deksitey — the inhabitant of rainforests of nasty and central Madagascar. They are called diadems for their bright blue. White and red colors. And inhabitants of Madagascar for fun christened them "Tricolour" in memory of a three-colored French flag which flew over the island before independence had won.

gipolimnas Deksitey

Dark brown wings of large South American nimfalids Arkheoprepona demofont are decorated wide with metal shine, izumrudno - a green strip.  Live in South America in the extensive territory of Brazil covering the tropical areas of, South America.

Arkheoprepona Demofont

Original decoration of rainforests of the Central and South America is butterfly Agrias Claudina. Shining prompt butterflies - a symbol of the nature of tropics, generous, unrestrained and fine.

 

Agrias Claudina

On an emerald-green background of trees filled with the sun, the small bright speck is visible. It is hypochlorine. The butterfly lives in the Western Amazonia, in Brazil, Ecuador, Peru.

 

Bateziya Gipokhlora

From Colombia to Guiana Katakor Kolima's butterfly lives at which on a black velvet with a blue reflection of a forward wing there passes bright green a prikrayevy sling. Pattern of the bottom party of back wings bright and original.

 

Katakora Kolima

 

The family of a barkhatnitsa unites more than 2000 types extended worldwide.  Generally it is small or the average size of a butterfly with wide roundish wings of protective colours:  brown, brown, gray.  Usually wings are decorated with small or round eyes.  Some tropical barkhatnitsa are painted quite brightly.

Gentle with transparent wings butterfly of Cithaerias are considerably distinguished from the relatives. Tsiterias Avrorina. Homeland of this butterfly is Western Amazonia (Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia). Have transparent wings. Therefore in flight a butterfly - the invisible being looks a small pink moth, and, catching it, the predator only damages little significant part of a back wing.

 Tsiterias Avrorina

To family morphids belong more than 70 species of butterflies which on coloring of the wide wings share on some groups. Some types have on a dark background pass bright blue, greenish, lilac strips. At others wings with a gloomy black-blue or red-brown pattern: the largest morphids  – gekuba and kissy with a big way of wings to 180 mm. These effective butterflies collected all blue of the sky on the wings, shining metal shine with various shades.

Kisseid's morph live in rainforests of Amazon, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Kisseida are  very skillful and fast flyers. Even having never waved wings, they over glades in a selva. Butterflies keep highly, it is impossible to get them by  net from the ground. In the XIX century  in Guiana hunters of butterflies to catch morphids, constructed wooden floorings at the level of crowns of trees.

 Kisseid's morph

Morph Sulkovsky - this butterfly more small than the majority morphid. And still it makes on the observer not smaller impression, than others, huge, butterflies of this family. Have bright wings.

 Morph Sulkovsky

Morph didius  is one of the largest and bright butterflies of a sort of a morph.  Typical  bright is blue form is considered.  Less often meets butterflies of blue emerald outflow and light, nacreous-blue.

Morph didius Morfo Godart

Godart's morph - this large butterfly admires everyone who manages to see it. The homeland of godart - rainforests of Bolivia and Peru. Wingspan about 150 mm, but their shine isn't so bright. Along wavy edge of blue wings stretched the wide brown strip decorated with an arch  covered light brown specks.

From family brassolids the sort is presented (Caligo) in expositions kaligo that in Latin will mean the gloomy. Butterflies live in the woods and disappear in a deep shadow in the afternoon: their daily activity lasts not for long, till 20 minutes, in fast morning and evening twilight. Flight of  butterflies fast, sometimes the spasmodic. As well as all brassolids, they like to suck the juice following from overripe fruits.

In a selva of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Honduras and Peru live huge atry.  Background color of a wing dark is brown from a dark blue outflow, its edge is wavy

  Kaligo Atrey

From the bottom party on wings - the most difficult drawing. Big and very bright dark peephole in the white frame, similar approximately owls dominates in a silvery picture. Such "eyes" can frighten off an attacking predator or distract it from the vital parts of a body of a butterfly.

Urania family is presented in expositions alcides agate and hriziridiy Madagascar. Hriziridiya is the brightest and darling for collectors Urania. Shining metal shine of paints, it is really unique. There are no such colours in a range which wouldn't flicker and were poured wings of this magnificent creation of the nature. The shape of back wings of an insect of the island of Madagascar is surprising: each vein on them comes to an end with a tail of various length. Unlike almost all cheshuyekryly, drawing on Madagascar Urania wings is asymmetric — the pattern of the left wings doesn't copy a pattern of the right in detail.

Hriziridiya Madagascar

Altsides the agate is widespread in Northern Australia and on the island New Guinea where can be met quite often. As well as everything brightly painted Urania, these butterflies fly in the daytime.

Altsides the agate

The family of pavlineyes, or saturniya totals more than 1200 types active at night. The majority of them lives in tropics and subtropics.

Grace of lines and expressive shape of wings distinguish this remarkable South American butterfly from other saturniya of this sort. Drawing of wings as if is executed in modernist style. Lives in the boundless woods of Brazil and, probably, in Paraguay.

Restsintis Psevdomarty

Cayo romul. These magnificent butterflies live in rain rainforests on the southeast coast of Brazil. Background color of wings — brown-dark brown. The light fancifully curved line which has been beautifully beaten off by a black otorochka, "breaks" the plane of a wing and creates illusory two-planned character of drawing that is natural, has to prevent the enemy to concentrate on real contours of a butterfly.

 

Cayo Romul

Attakus Atlas, this huge saturniya lives in the territory stretching from North - east India to New Guinea. In a rich dress of  its wide wings various shades of velvety-brown, red, pink, yellow and cream colours are harmoniously combined.

 

Attakus Atlas

Argem mitrey or a saturniya a comet - the night inhabitant of rainforests of Madagascar a magic saturniya the comet is distinguished from relatives with the sizes, wonderful bright yellow coloring and improbable length tails on back wings to 13 cm.

 

Agrema mitrey or saturniya comet

One of the moths most widespread worldwide are butterflies of family scoops, or nochnitsa. Butterflies fly mainly at night and in twilight. Forward wings of a scoop are longer than back, often narrow. Most have gray or brown. Drawing of forward wings usually contains cross lines and three spots: ring pochkovidny and wedge-shaped. Back wings more roundish, gray, whitish, are more rare with bright drawing. The scoop in a museum collection is the bright representative of a tizaniye agrippina.

 

TIZANIYA AGRIPPINA

This is the biggest butterfly in the world, wingspan to 300мм. In flight аgrippina is hardly recognized as an insect, especially in the twilight when outlines blur and silently flying butterfly bird makes frightening impression.

Conclusion

The exposition of the museum of natural history is issued with application of modern design. Having on a scientific basis, in the museum the ecological compositions showing features of the local nature are presented. Collections always replenish and renewed, classes with school students and students are given in a museum.

The museum gives the chance to touch infinite variety and magnificence of wildlife, to be surprised and admire it with.

 

Questions to Rector

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